The eating culture of the Sundanese: Does the traditional salad (Lalapan) improve vegetable intake and blood β-carotene concentration?

  • Ahmad Hisbullah Amrinanto Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • Hardinsyah Hardinsyah Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • Eny Palupi Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia


This study explores how consumption of the traditional salad Lalapan, central to the eating culture of the Sundanese, is associated with skin quality perception, daily β-carotene intake and blood β-carotene concentrations. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Gunung Malang Village and Leuweung Kolot Village, Bogor District, West Java. 60 healthy Sundanese women, aged 30-49 years, were selected using simple random sampling. Their body weight and height were measured, and they were interviewed about the eating culture of Lalapan, skin quality perceptions after consumption of Lalapan, and consumption habits of Lalapan using a semi-quantitative month-long food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ). The blood β-carotene concentrations of about 25% of the subjects were analysed and Chi-square used to evaluate the association between variables. The results show that about 60% and 51.7% subjects had a good eating culture of Lalapan and good skin quality perceptions respectively. The eating culture of Lalapan had a positive association with skin quality perception (p=0.000), β-carotene intake from Lalapan (p=0.008), daily β-carotene intake (p=0.035), and blood β-carotene concentrations (p=0.031). The consumption of Lalapan is a wisdom culture in Sundanese society that serves to improve vegetable consumption at the community level. In particular, it increases nutrient intake, especially β-carotene that is beneficial to health. Given that vegetable consumption is low in the community, maintenance of the good eating culture of Lalapan should be an urgent policy priority to ensure the nutrition and health of the community.

Keywords: β-carotene, consumer perception, eating culture, Lalapan, skin quality

Data of the article

First received: 11 April 2019 | Last revision received: 06 August 2019
Accepted: 11 August 2019 | Published online: 12 September 2019
DOI: 10.17170/kobra-20190709593


Appleton, K.M., McGrath, A.J., McKinley, M.C., Draffin, C.R., Hamill, L.L., Young, I.S., & Woodside, J.V. (2018). The value of facial attractiveness for encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption: analyses from a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 18, 298. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5202-6.

Block, G., Norkus, E., Hudes, M., Mandel, S., & Helzlsouer, K. (2001). Which plasma antioxidants are most related to fruit and vegetable consumption? American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(12), 1113-1118.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2010). Mengulik Data Suku di Indonesia. Retrieved from 2015/11/18/127/mengulik-data-suku-di-indonesia.html.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2017). Buletin pemantauan ketahanan pangan Indonesia. Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika, 8, 1-24.

Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, S., & Pfander, H. (2008). Carotenoids. Basel, CH: Birkhäuser.

Caspi, C.E., Sorensen, G., Subramanian, S.V, & Kawachi, I. 2012. The local food environment and diet: a systematic review. Health Place, 18(5), 1172–1187. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.05.006

Cho, S., Lee, D.H., Won, C.H., Kim, S.M., Lee, S., Lee, M.J., & Chung, J.H. (2010). Differential effects of low-dose and high-dose beta-carotene supplementation on the signs of photoaging and type I procollagen gene expression in human skin in vivo. Dermatology, 221(2), 160-71. doi:10.1159/000305548

Damanik, R. (2009). Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour): a Bataknese traditional cuisine perceived as lactagogue by Bataknese lactating women in Simalungun, North Sumatera, Indonesia. Journal of Human Lactation, 25(1), 64-72. doi:10.1177/0890334408326086

Dean, W.R., & Sharkey, J.R. (2011). Rural and urban differences in the associations between characteristics of the community food environment and fruit and vegetable intake. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behaviour, 43(6), 426-433. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2010.07.001

Eicker, J., Kürten, V., Wild, S., Riss, G., Goralczyk, R., Krutmann, J., & Berneburg, M. (2003). Beta carotene supplementation protects from photoaging-associated mitochondrial DNA mutation. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, 2(6), 655-9. doi:10.1039/b300808h

Fabbri, A.D.T., & Crosby, G.A. (2016). A review of the impact of preparation and cooking on the nutritional quality of vegetables and legumes, International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 3, 2-11. doi:10.1016/j.ijgfs.2015.11.001

Garcia, A.L., Koebnick, C., Dagnelie, P.C., Strassner, C., Elmadfa, I., Katz N......., Hoffmann, I. (2007). Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma β-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans. British Journal of Nutrition, 99(6), 1293-1300.

Gay, L.R., & Diehl, P.L. (1992). Research methods for business and management. New York, NY: MacMillan Publishing Company.

Gopper, S.S., Smith, J.L., & Goff, J.L. (2009). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism (5th ed.). Wadsworth, CA: Cengange Learning.

Gray A. (2017). Dueling the consumer-activist dualism: the consumption experiences of modern food activists. Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society, 5(3), 35-45. Retrieved from

Grune, T., Lietz, G., Palou, A., Ross, A.C., Stahl, W., Tang, G., Thurnham, D., ……. Biesalski, H.K. (2010). Beta-carotene is an important vitamin A source for humans. Journal of Nutrition, 140(12), 2268S-85S. doi:10.3945/jn.109.119024

Hardinsyah, Sumule, A., Letsoin, J., & Barausau, J. (2006). Persepsi masyarakat tentang manfaat budaya dan kesehatan mengonsumsi tambelo, siput, dan kerang di Mimika, Papua. Journal of Nutrition and Food, 1(1),13-22.

Hendariningrum, R. (2018). Budaya dan komunikasi kesehatan (studi pandangan kesehatan pada masyarakat Sunda dalam tradisi makan Lalapan). Jurnal Lugas, 2(1), 13-19. doi:10.31334/jl.v2i1.118

Ingranti, M., Santoso, I., & Dania, W.A.P. (2012). Analisis pengaruh komponen teknologi dan nilai tambah terhadap perkembangan centra industri kerupuk udang Sidoarjo (studi kasus di industri kerupuk udang desa Kedung Rejo, Kabupaten Sidoarjo). Jurnal Industri, 1(2), 125-139.

Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. (2018). Lalap. Retrieved from

Kittler, P.G., Sucher, K.P., & Nelms, M.N. (2012). Food and culture (6th ed.). Wadsworth, CA: Cengange Learning.

Koebnick, C., Garcia, A.L., Dagnelie, P.C., Strassner, C., Lindemans, J., Katz, N.,……. Hoffmann I. (2005). Long-term consumption of a raw food diet is associated with favorable serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides but also with elevated plasma homocysteine and low serum HDL cholesterol in humans. Journal of Nutrition, 135(10), 2372–2378. doi:10.1093/jn/135.10.2372

Köpcke, W., & Krutmann, J. (2008). Protection from sunburn with beta-carotene-a meta-analysis. Photochemistry Photobiology, 84(2), 284-8. doi:10.1111/j.1751-1097.2007.00253.x

Link, L.B., & Potter, J.D. (2004). Raw versus cooked vegetables and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 13(9), 1422-1435.

Mayne, S.T., Cartmel, B., Scarmo, S., Lin, H., Leffell, D.J., Welch, E., Ermakov, I., ........ Gellermann, W. (2010). Noninvasive assessment of dermal carotenoids as a biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92(4), 794-800.

McKillop, D.J., Pentieva, K., Daly, D., McPartlin, J.M., Hughes, J., Strain, J.J., Scott, J.M., & McNulty, H. (2002). The effect to different cooking methods on folate retention in various foods that are among the major contributors to folate intake in the UK diet. British Journal of Nutrition, 88(6), 681–688.

Meinke, M.C., Darvin, M.E., Vollert, H., & Lademann, J. (2010). Bioavailability of natural carotenoids in human skin compared to blood. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 76(2), 269–274. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2010.06.004

O’Brien, J., & Morrissey, P.A. (1989). Nutritional and toxicological aspects of the Maillard browning reaction in foods. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 28(3), 211-48. doi:10.1080/10408398909527499

Paryono, A.K. (2014). Kebiasaan konsumsi jamu untuk menjaga kesehatan tubuh pada saat hamil dan setelah melahirkan di desa Kajoran Klaten Selatan. Jurnal Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi. 3(1), 64-72.

Pezdirc, K., Hutchesson, M.J., Williams, R.L., Rollo, M.E., Burrows, T.L., Wood, L.G., Oldmeadow, C., & Collins, C.E. (2016). Consuming high-carotenoid fruit and vegetables influences skin yellowness and plasma carotenoids in young women: a single-blind randomized crossover trial. Journal of Academy of Nutrition Dietetics, 116(8), 1257-65. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.03.012

Preedy, V., Watson, R., & Martin, C. (2011). Handbook of behavior, food and nutrition. New York, NY: Springer.

Reddy, S., & Anitha, M. (2015). Culture and its influence on nutrition and oral health. Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal, 8, 613-620. doi:10.13005/bpj/757

Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B., Kimura, M., Godoy, H.T., & Amaya-Farfan, J. (2008). Update Brazilian database on food carotenoids: factors affecting carotenoid composition. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21(6), 445-463. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2008.04.001

Roudsari, A.H., Vedadhir, A., Amiri, P., Kalantari, N., Omidvar, N., Eini-Zinab, H. &, Sadati, S.M.H. (2017). Psycho-socio-cultural determinants of food choice: a qualitative study on adults in social and cultural context of Iran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 12(4), 241-250.

Savage, J.S., Fisher, J.O., & Birch, L.L. (2007). Parental influence on eating behavior: conception to adolescence. Journal of Law, Medecine, & Ethics, 35(1), 22–34. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2007.00111.x

Schagen, S.K., Zampeli, V.A., Makrantonaki, E., & Zouboulis, C.C. (2012). Discovering the link between nutrition and skin aging. Dermatoendocrinol, 4(3), 298-307. doi:10.4161/derm.22876

Schattenberg, H.J., Geno, P.W., Hsu, J.P., Fry, W.G., & Parker, R.P. (1996). Effect of household preparation on levels of pesticide residues in produce. Journal of AOAC International, 79(6), 1447–53.

Sengül, M., Yildiz, H., & Kavaz, A. (2014). The effect of cooking on total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected vegetables. International Journal of Food Properties, 17(3), 481–490. doi:10.1080/10942912.2011.619292

Southerton D. (2012). Habits, routines and temporalities of consumption: from individual behaviours to the reproduction of everyday practices. Time & Society, 22(3), 335-355. doi: 10.1177/0961463X12464228

Souyoul, S.A., Saussy, K.P., & Lupo, M.P. (2018). Nutraceuticals: a review. Dermatology and Therapy, 8(1), 5-16. doi:10.1007/s13555-018-0221-x

Stahl, W., Heinrich, U., Jungmann, H., von Laar, J., Schietzel, M., Sies, H., & Tronnier, H. (1998). Increased dermal carotenoid levels assessed by noninvasive reflection spectrophotometry correlate with serum levels in women ingesting Betatene. Journal of Nutrition, 128(5), 903–907. doi: 10.1093/jn/128.5.903

Stahl, W., Heinrich, U., Jungmann, H., Sies, H., & Tronnier, H. (2000). Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(3), 795-8. doi:10.1093/ajcn/71.3.795

Stajcic, N. (2013). Understanding culture: food as a means of communication. Hemispheres, 28, 5-14.

Tan, K.W., Graf, B.A., Mitra, S.R., & Stephen, I.D. (2015). Daily consumption of a fruit and vegetable smoothie alters facial skin color. PLoS ONE, 10(7), e0133445.

Wansink, B. (2002). Changing eating habits on the home front: lost lessons from World War II research. J Public Policy Marketing, 21(1), 90–9.

Wansink, B., Cheney, M.M., & Chan, N. (2003). Exploring comfort food preferences across age and gender. Physiology & Behaviour, 79(4), 739–742.

Whitehead, R.D., Re, D., Xiao, D., Ozakinci, G., & Perrett, D.I. (2012). You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes. PLoS ONE, 7(3), e32988.

World Health Organization. (2015). Healthy diet. Retrieved from 394.pdf?ua=1.

Withanachchi, S.S., Kunchulia, I., Ghambashidze, G., Al Sidawi, R., Urushadze, T., & Ploeger, A. (2018). Farmers’ perception of water quality and risks in the Mashavera river basin, Georgia: analyzing the vulnerability of the social-ecological System through Community Perceptions. Sustainability, 10(9), 3062. doi:10.3390/su10093062

Zouboulis, C.C., Ganceviciene, R., Liakou, A.I., Theodoridis, A., Elewa, R., & Makrantonaki, E. (2019). Aesthetic aspects of skin aging, prevention, and local treatment. Clinics in Dermatology. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.04.00

How to Cite
Amrinanto, A. H., Hardinsyah, H., & Palupi, E. (2019). The eating culture of the Sundanese: Does the traditional salad (Lalapan) improve vegetable intake and blood β-carotene concentration?. Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society, 7(2), Article Nr. 104. Retrieved from