A scoping review on the presence of antibiotic residues in milk and the government strategies to control the use of antibiotics in milk industry in India
In dairy farms, antibiotics are administered for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Lack of adherence to withdrawal periods and irrational use of antibiotics in the feed may lead to antibiotic residues (AR) in milk. Evidence suggests that the risk of AR in the milk is believed to be higher in developing countries due to multifarious reasons. The issue of residues in milk is predominantly concerning in India, as it has the largest consumer base in the world. Many studies have identified that consuming milk contaminated with antibiotics may pose myriads of health hazards and therefore is a matter of grave concern. This scoping review was conducted to collate all the information available on AR in milk, its associated health risks, and the government initiatives that are in place to combat the inappropriate antibiotic use in the Indian dairy industry. The review was conducted systematically using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines, 2020 as its framework. A comprehensive search was conducted using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Google. A total of 19 articles were retrieved for the AR in milk, and 11 grey literature were identified for the government initiatives to control the use of antibiotics. Analysis of the collated information revealed that tetracyclines were the most commonly occurring AR in milk. Additionally, maximum articles identified AMR as the most common health hazard that may arise due to AR in milk, followed by allergic reactions. Finally, the review concluded that there is a requirement for more stringent regulations to curb AR in the dairy industry in India.