Physico-chemical Characterization of Four Species Indonesian Mangrove Fruits as Food Source

  • Purwiyatno Hariyadi IPB University
  • Indah IPB University
  • Slamet IPB University
  • Azis
Keywords: Avicennia sp., Bruguiera sp., mangrove flour, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia sp.


Carbohydrates in flour and starch are essential ingredients for the food industry, often used as a thickening, gelling, bulking, and water retention agents. In Indonesia, mangrove fruits have traditionally been used as carbohydrate source.  However, studies related to the physicochemical of fruit, flour, and starch of mangrove as a food source are still minimal. This study reported the Physico-chemical characteristic of four species of Indonesian mangroves fruits, namely Avicennia sp., Bruguiera sp., Rhizophora sp., and Sonneratia sp, and its respective starches. Mangrove fruits of Avicennia sp., and Sonneratia sp., are safe for direct consumption or further processing. Meanwhile, Rhizophora sp. and Bruguiera sp. are not recommended for direct consumption because they contain cyanide. However, proper food processing can reduce cyanide to safe levels. Our results suggest that mangrove fruit flour can be utilized as a food source. Bruguiera's starch can provide thickness in a short cooking time based on the pasting characteristics. Rhizophora’s starch is not suitable for use as a thickening agent in cold and semi-solid food products. Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp. require a long cooking time to produce a good consistency, but this consistency can withstand well at cold temperatures.


[AACC] Association of American Cereal Chemist 08-01.01. (2001). AACC method 08-01: Ash basic method.
[AACC] Association of American Cereal Chemist 44-15.02. (2013). Method 44-15.02. Moisture-Air-Oven Methods. In AACC International Approved Methods. Cereals & Grains Association St. Paul, MN, USA.
[AACC] Association of American Cereal Chemist, 46-13.01. (2010). Approved methods of analysis. Methods, 46‐30.01. Crude Protein‐Combustion Method; 26‐50.01. Brabender Quadrumat Jr.(Quadruplex) Method; 54‐40.02. Mixograph Method; 38‐12.02. Wet Gluten, Dry Gluten, Water‐binding Capacity, and Gluten Index; 66‐50.01. Pasta and Noodle Cooking Quality‐Fi.
[AACC] Association of American Cereal Chemist 76-21.01. (1999). Method 76‐21.01, general pasting method for wheat or rye flour or starch using the rapid visco analyser. Approved Methods of Analysis.
[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2003.06. (2012). Method 2003.06. Association of Official Analtical Chemists.
[FAO] Food Agricultural Organization. (2003). Food Energy: Methods of Analysis and Conversion Factors: Report of a Technical Workshop, Rome, 3-6 December, 2002. Food Agricultural Organization.
[ITTO] The International Tropical Timber Organization. (2017). ITTO Annual Report 2017. retrieved from
[KLHK] Ministry of Environment and Forestry of Indonesia. (2019). Mangrove Rehabilitation in order to Sustain Mangrove Ecosystem Management. A Portrait of Conservation and Rehabilitation Efforts in Indonesia, 36. index.php/ICoMIRE/ICoMIRE-2019/paper/viewFile/607/22
Aida, G. R., Wardiatno, Y., Fahrudin, A., & Kamal, M. M. (2014). Mangrove litter production on the coast of Tangerang, Banten. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 19(2), 91–97.
Allen, P., Bennett, K., & Heritage, B. (2014). SPSS statistics version 22: A practical guide. Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.
Amalia, U., Darmanto, Y. S., & Rianingsih, L. (2016). Chemical Characteristics of Fish Nugget with Mangrove Fruit Flour Substitution. Aquatic Procedia, 7, 265–270.
Andarwulan, N., Yuliana, N. D., Hasna, E., Aziz, S. A., & Davis, T. D. (2014). Comparative analysis of three torbangun clones (Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng) based on phenotypic characteristics and phenolic content. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5(24), 3673.
Anwar, E., Khotimah, H., & Yanuar, A. (2006). An approach on pregelatinized cassava starch phosphate esters as hydrophilic polymer excipient for controlled release tablet. J Med Sci (Faisalbad, Pakistan), 6(6), 923–929.
Apriyantono, A., Fardiaz, D., NL, P., Sedarnawati, & Budiyanto, S. (1989). Food Analysis. Indonesia: IPB University.
Baskin, S. I., & Brewer, T. G. (2006). Cyanide Poisoning. Chapter. Pharmacology Division. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. USA.
Bengen, D. G. (2001). Technical Guidelines for the Identification and Management of Mangrove Ecosystems. Bogor, Indonesia.
Beta, T., & Corke, H. (2001). Noodle quality as related to sorghum starch properties. Cereal Chemistry, 78(4), 417–420.
Chen, P., Liu, X., Zhang, X., Sangwan, P., & Yu, L. (2015). Phase transition of waxy and normal wheat starch granules during gelatinization. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2015.
Cready RM. (1970). Starch and Dextrin. New York: Academic Press, .
Crisan, E. V, & Sands, A. (1978). Nutritional value. new York: Academic Press.
David, O., Arthur, E., Kwadwo, S. O., Badu, E., & Sakyi, P. (2015). Proximate composition and some functional properties of soft wheat flour. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 4(2), 753–758.
Dewi, E. N., Kurniasih, R. A., & Purnamayati, L. (2017). Nutritional and Antinutritional Properties of lindur (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) Fruits Flour from Different Pre-Treatments. Advanced Science Letters, 23(4), 3427–3430.
Eshun, G. (2012). Nutrient composition and functional properties of bean flours of three soya bean varieties from Ghana. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3(8), 176–181.
Freitas, R. A., Paula, R. C., Feitosa, J. P. A., Rocha, S., & Sierakowski, M.-R. (2004). Amylose contents, rheological properties and gelatinization kinetics of yam (Dioscorea alata) and cassava (Manihot utilissima) starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 55(1), 3–8.
Guelpa, A., Bevilacqua, M., Marini, F., O’Kennedy, K., Geladi, P., & Manley, M. (2015). Application of Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) viscograms and chemometrics for maize hardness characterisation. Food Chemistry, 173, 1220–1227.
Handayani, S., Yuwono, S. S., Aulanni’am, A., & Suprayitno, E. (2015). Isolation and identification structure antioxidant active compounds of ethyl acetate fraction hypocotyl Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L) Lamk. International Journal ChemTech Research, 8(4), 1858–1867.
Hardoko, E. S., Puspitasari, Y. E., & Amalia, R. (2015). Study of ripe Rhizophora mucronata fruit flour as functional food for antidiabetic. International Food Research Journal, 22(3).
Hwanhlem, N., Chobert, J.-M., & Aran, H. (2014). Bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from mangrove forests in southern Thailand as potential bio-control agents in food: Isolation, screening and optimization. Food Control, 41, 202–211.
Immaningsih, N. (2012). Gelatinisation profile of several flour formulations for estimating cooking behaviour. Penel Gizi Makan, 35(1), 12–22.
Jane, J.-L., & Chen, J.-F. (1992). Effect of amylose molecular size and amylopectin branch chain length on paste properties of starch. Cereal Chemistry, 69(1), 60–65.
Jariyah, J., Widjanarko, S. B., Yunianta, Y., & Estiasih, T. (2015). Phytochemical and acute toxicity studies of ethanol extract from Pedada (Sonneratia caseolaris) fruit flour (PFF). International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 5(2), 95–98.
Jariyah, J., Yektiningsih, E., Sarofa, U., & Sopadeo, P. A. (2018). Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with Various Mangrove Fruit Flours and Different Emulsifiers on Physicochemical Properties of Biscuits. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(2), 152–161.
Kadiri, M., & Fasidi, I. O. (1990). Studies on enzyme activities of Pleurotus tuber‐regium (Fries) Singer and Tricholoma lobayensis Heim at various fruitbody stages. Food/Nahrung, 34(8), 695–699.
Koehler, L. H. (1952). Differentiation of carbohydrates by anthrone reaction rate and color intensity. Analytical Chemistry, 24(10), 1576–1579.
Li, S., Zhang, Y., Wei, Y., Zhang, W., & Zhang, B. (2014). Thermal, pasting and gel textural properties of commercial starches from different botanical sources. Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, 4(4), 1.
Lin, L.-Y., Liu, H.-M., Yu, Y.-W., Lin, S.-D., & Mau, J.-L. (2009). Quality and antioxidant property of buckwheat enhanced wheat bread. Food Chemistry, 112(4), 987–991.
Mahmudi, M., Manajemen, J., Perairan, S., & Brawijaya, F. (2012). Estimation of Fish Production Through Mangrove Leaf Nutrients in Rhizophora Reforestation Area, Nguling, Pasuruan, East Java. Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences, 15(4), 231–235.
Mailhot, W. C., Patton, J. C., & Pomeranz, Y. (1988). Wheat Chemistry and Technology. United State: American Association of Cereal Chemists.
Marlina, N. (2000). Analysis Of Cyanide In Singkong With Other Methods And Modified Hamir. Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture. Ciawi-bogor, Indonesia.
Megayana, Y. (2011). Study of Alginate and Chlorophyll Content of Seaweed Sargassum sp. at Different Harvest Ages. Journal Of Aquaculture And Fish Health, 120-127.
Meyer, L. (1973). Food Chemistry. East West Press PVT, Ltd.
Okoro, I. O., & Achuba, F. I. (2012). Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(30), 7720–7724.
Ovando-Martínez, M., Bello-Pérez, L. A., Whitney, K., Osorio-Díaz, P., & Simsek, S. (2011). Starch characteristics of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in different localities. Carbohydrate Polymers, 85(1), 54–64.
Putri, L., Yulianda, F., & Wardianto, Y. (2015). Mangrove zonation and its associated macrozoobenthos in Pantai Indah Kapuk, Jakarta. International Journal of Bonorowo Wetlands, 5(1), 29–43.
Rahadian, A., Prasetyo, L. B., Setiawan, Y., & Wikantika, K. (2019). A Historical Review of Data and Information of Indonesian Mangroves Area. Media Konservasi, 24(2), 163–178.
Rahim, S., & Baderan, D. W. K. (2017). Mangrove Forests and Their Utilization. Indonesia: Deepublish.
Richana, N., & Sunarti, T. C. (2004). Characterization of physicochemical properties of tuber flour and starch flour from ganyong, suweg, ubikelapa and gembili. J Pascapanen, 1(1), 29-37.
Sahin, S., & Sumnu, S. G. (2006). Physical properties of foods. Springer Science & Business Media.
Singh, A., Hung, Y., Corredig, M., Phillips, R. D., Chinnan, M. S., & McWatters, K. H. (2005). Effect of milling method on selected physical and functional properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 40(5), 525–536.
Smith, P. S. (1982). Starch derivatives and their use in foods. retrieved from
Sodamade, A., Bolaji, O. S., & Adeboye, O. O. (2013). Proximate analysis, mineral contents and functional properties of Moringa oleifera leaf protein concentrate. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 4(6), 47–51.
Srichuwong, S., Sunarti, T. C., Mishima, T., Isono, N., & Hisamatsu, M. (2005). Starches from different botanical sources II: Contribution of starch structure to swelling and pasting properties. Carbohydrate Polymers, 62(1), 25–34.
Subandriyo, S., Setianingsih, N., & Muryati, M. (2015). Multilevel Extraction for Reducing Tannin of Mangrove Fruit (Bruguiera gumnorrhiza Lamk) as a Raw Material in Mangrove Flour. Journal of Applied Food Technology, 2, 1.
Sulistyawati, W., & Kumalaningsih, S. (2012). Low tannins and HCN of Lindur fruit flour products as an alternative food. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian, 13(3), 187–198.
Sumartini, S., Harahap, K. S., & Mujiyanti, A. (2021). Brownies From Mangrove Fruit Flour: The Use Of Variation Of Flours As An Alternative To High Food Nutrition. Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress, 17(1), 16–22.
Tester, R. F., & Morrison, W. R. (1990). Swelling and gelatinization of cereal starches. I. Effects of amylopectin, amylose, and lipids. Cereal Chem, 67(6), 551–557.
Wang, S., Li, C., Copeland, L., Niu, Q., & Wang, S. (2015). Starch Retrogradation-a comprehensive review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 568–585.
Widjanarko, S. B., Estiasih, T., & Sopade, P. A. (2014). Pasting properties mixtures of mangrove fruit flour (Sonneratia caseolaris) and starches. International Food Research Journal, 21(6), 2161.
Wrolstad, R. E., & Smith, D. E. (2017). Color analysis. In Food analysis (pp. 545–555). Springer.
Xie, S. X., Liu, Q., & Cui, S. W. (2005). Starch modification and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton: FL.
How to Cite
Hariyadi, P., Rosulva, I., Budijanto, S., & Sitanggang, A. B. (2022). Physico-chemical Characterization of Four Species Indonesian Mangrove Fruits as Food Source. Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society, 10(5). Retrieved from
Research Articles