Proximate biochemical parameters and antioxidant capac- ity of eight loquat genotypes (Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl.) from Zegzel Valley of Morocco

Evaluation of biochemical parameters and antioxidant capacity of eight loquat genotypes (Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl.) of Morocco

  • Ghizlane KABIRI Faculty of Sciences and Technics, University of Sultan Moulay Slimane Beni Mellal
  • OUSSAMA KODAD National School of Agriculture, Meknes,


The loquat fruit is considered as a very precious product due to its economic and health benefits. For this reason, the evaluation of their biochemical profile and antioxidant activity has become required. Indeed, healthy fruits are collected from eight loquat genotypes belonging to four regions of the Zegzel Valley. As a results, loquat fruit analysed showed a great pomological and biochemical richness. From the eight genotypes, the ‘Z1’ produced the biggest fruits (54.55 g) while ‘TA6’ had the highest sugar content (54.85 mg. g-1). The genotypes of ‘TA5’, ‘TA6’ and ‘TA7’ showed the highest levels of fructose (31.64 mg. g-1), sucrose (21.09 mg. g-1) and glucose (10.34 mg. g-1) respectively. In addition, the ‘T2’ showed the highest content of flavonoids (59.58 µg RE. g-1), vitamin C (14.19 mg AAE/100g) and organic acids which are malic acid (193.75 mg/100 g), quininic acid (107.25) and succinic acid (12.6 mg/100 g). For the total phenolics are abundant in ‘TZN1’ (186.0.5 µg GAEg-1), while the greatest carotenoid content was revealed in ‘TA7’ (90.65µg ß-carotene g-1). Concerning proteins content, the highest amount observed for ‘Z7’ (0.98 g/100g), whereas the tannin content appeared similar in all genotypes (2.94-2.61 µg. g-1). Regarding the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP tests, the ‘Z7’ recorded the highest antioxidant capacity compared to the other genotypes. Overall, the quantity of major bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity varied considerably among the eight genotypes. According to the results obtained in this study, the eight loquat genotypes have a great pomological and biochemical potential that can be exploited in vegetative propagation and improvement programs of this tree.



Ancos, B., Gonzalez, EM., Pilar CM. (2000). Ellagic acid, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents and radical scavenging capacity affected by freezing and frozen storage in raspberry fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 4565–4570. https://doi. org/10.1021/jf0001684.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis (16th edn). 1995. AOAC International, Arlington, VA; 16–17.
Benzie, IFF., Strain, JJ. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘antioxidant power’: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry 239, 70–76.
Braca, A., Tommasi, ND., Bari, LD., Pizza, C., Politi, M., Morelli, I., (2001). Antioxidant principles from Bauhinia terapotensis. Journal of Natural Products, 64, 892–895.
Bradford, MM. (1976). A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantification of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein-Dye Binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248- 254.
Chanwitheesuk, A., Teerawutgulrag, A., Rakariyatham, N. (2005). Screening of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds of some edible plants of Thailand. Food Chemistry, 92, 491-497.
Chen, FX., Liu, XH., Chen, LS. (2009). Developmental changes in pulp organic acid concentration and activities of acid-metabolising enzymes during the fruit development of two loquat (Eriobotyra japonica Lindl.) cultivars differing in fruit acidity. Food Chemistry, 114, 657-664.
Chen, JW., Zhang, SL., Zhang, LC., Zhao, ZZ., Xu, JG., (2001). Fruit photosynthesis and assimilate translocation and partitioning: their characteristics and role in sugar accumulation in developing Citrus unshiu fruit. Acta Botanica Sinica, 44,158 – 163.
DuBois, M., Gilles, K., Hamilton, JK., Rebers, PA., Smith, FA. (1951). Colorimetric Method for the De- termination of Sugars. Nature 168 (4265), 167–167.
Durgac, C., Polat, A., Kamiloglu, O. (2006). Determining performances of some loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) cultivars under Mediterranean coastal conditions in Hatay, Turkey. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 34, 225–230.
Ercisli, S., Gozlekcib, S., Sengulc, M., Hegedusd, A., Tepee, S. (2012). Some physicochemical characteristics. bioactive content and antioxidant capacity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) Fruits from Turkey. Scientia Horticulturae, 148, 185–189.
Gardner, PT., White, TAC., McPhail, DB., Duthie, GG. (2000). The relative contributions of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolics to the antioxidant potential of fruit juices. Food Chemistry, 68, 471 – 474.
Hasegawa P, Adelia D, Mercadante A, Chagas E, Pior R, Lajolo F, Cordenunsi B, Purgatt E, 2010. Chemical composition of five loquat cultivars planted in Brazil. Food Sci. Technol 30, 552-559.
Hernández, F., Noguera-Artiaga, L., Burló, F., Wodjdylo, A., Carbonell-Barrachina, AA., Legua, P. (2016). Physico-chemical, nutritional, and volatile composition and sensory profile of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96 (8), 2682-2691.
Insero, O., Rega P., Luca A. (2002). Comparison among Ten Loquat Cultivars in Campania Area. In Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens, CIHEAM p. 67–70.
Javanmardi, J., Khalighi, A., Kashi, A., Bais, HP., Vivanio, JM. (2002). Chemical characterization of basil (Ocimum basiliam L.) found in local accessions and used in traditional medicines in Iran. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 5878–5883.
Jia, ZS., Tang, MC., Wu, JM. (1999). The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry, 64, 555–559.
Kim, SH., Shin, TY. (2009). Anti-inflammatory effect of leaves of Eriobotrya japonica correlating with attenuation of p38 MAPK ERK, and NF-kappaB activation in mast cells. Toxicology in Vitro, 23, 1215–1219.
Liu, Y., Zhang, W., Xu, C., Li, X. (2016). Biological Activities of Extracts from Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.): A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17, 1983.
MansourI, A., Embarek, G., Kokkalou, E., Kefalas, P. (2005). Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). Food Chemistry, 89, 411–420.
Nunes, MCN., Brecht, JK., Morais, AMMB., Sargent, SA. (1995). Physical and chemical quality characteristics of strawberries after storage are reduced by a short delay to cooling. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 6, 17–28.
Perez-Jimenezn, J., Arranz, S., Tabernero, M., Dıaz-Rubio, ME., Serrano, J., Goni, I. (2008). Updated methodology to determine antioxidant capacity in plant foods, oils and beverages: extraction, measurement and expression of results. International Food Research Journal, 41, 274–285.
RDAO (Regional directorate of agriculture of the oriental). L’Oriental: La production du néflier de Zegzel dépasse 10.000 T., 2021.
Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Ann, PA. (1999). Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26, 1231–1237.
Reyes, LF., Villarreal, JE., Cisneros-Zevallos, L. (2007). The increase in antioxidant capacity after wounding depends on the type of fruit or vegetable tissue. Food Chemistry, 101, 1254 – 1262.
Rhomari, Y. (2013). « Le néflier de Zegzel » In Agriculture du Maghreb. n°67. ORMVA of Moulouya. Morocco 148-152.
Singleton, VL., Rossi, JA. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic – phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144–158.
Sun, B., Richardo-da-Silvia, JM., Spranger, I. (1998). Critical factors of vanillin assay for catechin and proanthocyanidins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 4267–4274.
Sun, H., Chen, W., Jiang, Y., He, Q., Li, X., Guo, Q., Xiang, S., Xi, W., Liang, G. (2020). Characterization of volatiles in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits by electronic nose and headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 40, 21-32.
Swain, T., Hillis, WE. (1995). The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica. I – The quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 10, 63–68.
Toker, R., & Gölükcü, M., Tokgöz, H., Tepe, S. (2013). Organic Acids and Sugar Compositions of Some Loquat Cultivars (Eriobotrya japonica L.) Grown in Turkey. Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi. 19, 121-128.
Virginia PV, Juan José HM, 2011. Maduración Del Níspero Japonés (Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl.) Cv. Algerie: Carácter Climatérico E Índices De Recolección, pp-100.
Xu, HX., Chen, JW. (2011). Commercial quality. major Cioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of 12 cultivars of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91: 1057–1063.
Zhang, HZ., Peng, SA., Cai, LH., Fang, DQ. (1993). The germplasm resources of the genus Eriobotrya with special reference on the origin of E. japonica Lindl. Plant breed 63 : 772.
Zhang, W., Zhao, X., Sun, C., Li, X., Chen, K. (2015). Phenolic Composition from Different Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) Cultivars Grown in China and Their Antioxidant Properties. Molecules, 20, 542-55.
Zheng, J., Kallio, H., Yang, B. (2009). Effects of latitude and weather conditions on sugars: fruit acids and ascorbic acid in currant (Ribes spp.) cultivar. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89 (12), 2011-2023.
Zielinski H., Kozlowska H. (2000). Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 2008 – 2016.
How to Cite
KABIRI, G., KODAD, O., HERNANDEZ, F., LACHKHAM, F. Z., FAIQ, Y., OURRADI, H., ENNAHLI, S., ERCISLI, S., & HANINE, H. (2022). Proximate biochemical parameters and antioxidant capac- ity of eight loquat genotypes (Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl.) from Zegzel Valley of Morocco: Evaluation of biochemical parameters and antioxidant capacity of eight loquat genotypes (Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl.) of Morocco. Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society, 10(5). Retrieved from
Research Articles