Optimization on the manufacturing process of fried instant corn noodle using response surface methodology

  • Tjahja Muhandri IPB University
  • Aminullah Aminullah
  • Subarna Subarna
  • Fahim Muhammad Taqi
  • Budi Nurtama
  • Muhammad Syahrul Fauzi


Instant corn noodles can be manufactured using the air drying and frying process. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum process parameters and emulsifier concentration to produce instant corn noodles from 100% corn flour with relatively good quality characteristics using a cooking-forming single screw extruder. This study consisted of two stages, namely the determination of corn noodles with the fastest cooking time using emulsifier concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% from the weight of corn flour, as well as the optimization of the manufacturing process using Response Surface Methodology. Wet corn noodles were dried using dry air at room temperature and fried using deep fat frying. The results showed that the dry corn noodle with a 1% emulsifier has the fastest cooking time of 6.1 minutes to reach the optimum cooking level. The optimum process combination was a drying time of 0 minutes and a frying process at 115 °C for 10 minutes. The verification of this process showed that instant corn noodles' water content, cooking loss, and elongation percentage were 13.32%, 10.50%, and 127.48%, respectively, in a 95% confidence interval. In addition, the cooking time of these optimized instant corn noodles was 6.8 minutes.


AACC. (2000). Approved methods of the AACC. Method 66-50. Pasta and noodle cooking quality – firmness, 10th Ed. St Paul: American Association of Cereal Chemist.

AOAC. (2005). Official method of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, 19th Ed. Gaithersburg: Association of Official Analytical Chemistry.

Ali, A., Maylani, D., & Pato, U. 2018. Study on the quality of instant noodles made from Riau local corn flour and sago starch. International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 14(4), 465-474.

Aminullah, Muhandri, T., & Subarna. (2019). Kajian penambahan guar gum, tawas, dan air terhadap karakteristik mutu fisik mi jagung basah metode ekstrusi. Jurnal Pertanian, 10, 36-42. In Indonesian

BSN. (2006). SNI 01-2346-2006 tentang petunjuk pengujian organoleptik dan atau sensori. Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional. In Indonesian

BSN. (2012). SNI 3551-2012 tentang mi instan. Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional. In Indonesian

Baiano A., Conte, A., & del Nobile, M.A. (2006). Influence of drying temperature on the spaghetti cooking quality. Journal of Food Engineering, 76(3), 341-347.

Charutigon, C., Jitpupakdree, J., Nansree, P., & Rungsardthong, V. (2007). Effects of processing conditions and the use of modified starch and monoglyceride on some properties of extruded rice vermicelli. LWT-Food Sci Tech., 41, 642 – 651.

Chen, L. (2015). Emulsifiers as food texture modifiers. Guangzhou: Guangdong University of Technology.

Dana, D. & Saguy, I.S.. (2006). Review: mechanism of oil uptake during deep fat frying and the surfactant effect-theory and myth. Adv.Colloid Interface Sci., 128(130), 267-272.

Engelen, A., Sugiyono, & Budijanto, S. (2017). Karakteristik kimia pada pembuatan mi sagu (Metroxylon sagu) kering. Jurnal Agroindustri Halal, 3, 1-9. In Indonesian

Gatade, A.A. & Sahoo, A.K. (2015). Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles. J Food Sci Technol., 52, 8395–8402.

Gulia, N. and Khatkar, B.S. (2013). Effect of processing variables on the oil uptake, textural properties and cooking quality of instant fried noodles. Journal of Food Quality, 36, 181-189.

Gulia, N., Dhaka, V., & Khatkar, B.S. (2014). Instant noodles: processing, quality, and nutritional aspects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54(10), 1386-1399.

Hattunisa, R.S. (2011). Optimasi proses dehidrasi dan formulasi bahan tambahan pangan pada mi jagung instant dengan metode ekstrusi. Bogor: IPB University. In Indonesian

Heiberger, R.M. & Holland B. (2004). Statistical analysis and data display: An intermediate course with examples in s-plus, r, and sas. USA: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Howell, D.C. (2008). Fundamental statistics for the behavioral sciences. 6th Ed. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Ilo, S., Schoenlechner, R., & Berghofer, E. (2000). Role of lipids in the extrusion cooking processes. Grasas y Aceites, 51(1–2), 97–110.

Kim, Y.S. (1996). Instant noodle. In J.E. Kruger & R.B. Matsuo (Eds.), Pasta and noodle technology (pp. 195-225). Minnesota: American Assosiation of Cereal Chemist, Inc.

Kalsum, N., & Nirmagustina, D.E.. (2009). Optimasi proses pengolahan mi jagung instan berbahan baku tepung jagung tinggi protein. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Terapan, 9, 47-54. In Indonesian

Kusnandar, F., Palupi, N.S., Lestari, O.A., & Widowati, S. (2009). Karakterisasi tepung jagung termodifikasi heat moisture treatment (HMT) dan pengaruhnya terhadap mutu pemasakan dan sensori mi jagung kering. Jurnal Pascapanen, 6, 76-84. In Indonesian

Lee, S.Y., Woo, K.S., Lim, J.K., Kim, H.I., & Lim, S.T. (2005). Effect of processing variables on texture of sweet potato starch noodles prepared in a nonfreezing process. Cereal Chem., 82, 475-478.

Liu, L. (2009). Evaluation of four sorghum hybrids in a gluten-free noodle system. Manhattan: Kansas State University.

Marti, A., Seetharaman, K., & Pagani, A. (2010). Rice-based pasta: a comparison between conventional pasta-making and extrusion-cooking. Journal of Cereal Science, 52, 404-409.

McDonough, C.M., Gomez, M.H., Rooney, L.W., & Saldivar S.O.S. (2001). Alkaline-cooked corn product. In Lusas and L.W. Rooney (Eds.), Snack foods processing. New York: CRC Press.

Meilgaard, M., Civillie, G.V., & Carr, B.T. (2016). Sensory technique evaluation, 5th Ed. Florida: CRC Press LLC.

Muhandri, T., Subarna, Agista, A.Z., Hariyadi, P., & Aminullah. (2019). Optimization of drying process of corn noodles using fluidized bed dryer. Scientific Study & Research: Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology, Food Industry, 20(1), 043 – 052.

Muhandri, T., Ahza, A.B., Syarief, R., & Sutrisno. (2011). Optimasi proses ekstrusi mi jagung dengan metode permukaan respon. J Teknol Indust Pangan, 2, 97-104. In Indonesian

Navidi, W. (2006). Statistics for engineering and scientist. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

Oh, N.H., Seib, P.A., Finney, K.F., & Pomeranz, Y. (1985). Oriental noodles. J Cereal Chem., 1(63), 93-96.

Olorunsogo, S.T., Adebayo, S.E., Orhevba, B.A., &. Awoyinka, T.B. (2019). Physicochemical properties of instant noodles produced from blends of sweet potato, soybean and corn flour. Food Research, 3(5), 391 – 399.

Pato U., Yusuf, Y., Isnaini, R.F., &. Dira, D.M. (2016). The quality of instant noodle made from local corn flour and tapioca flour. Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies, 3(2), 118-123.

Sittipod, S., & Shi, Y.C. (2016). Changes of starch during parboiling of rice kernels. Journal of Cereal Science, 69, 238-244.

Subarna & Muhandri, T. (2013). Pembuatan mi jagung kering dengan metode kalendering. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan, 24, 75-80. In Indonesian

Subarna, Muhandri, T., Nurtama, B., & Firlieyanti, A.S. (2012). Peningkatan mutu mi kering jagung dengan penerapan kondisi optimum proses dan penambahan monogliserida. J Teknol Industri Pangan, 23, 146-152. In Indonesian

Suhendro, E.L., Kunetz, C.F., McDonough, C.M., Rooney, L.W., & Waniska, R.D. (2000). Cooking characteristic and quality of noodles from food sorghum. Cereal Chem., 77, 96 – 100.

Taqi, F.M., Subarna, Muhandri, T., & Utomo, R.C. (2018). Efek penambahan propilen glikol alginat dan isolat protein kedelai terhadap mutu fisik dan mutu penerimaan mi jagung. J. Teknol. dan Industri Pangan, 29(2), 201-209. In Indonesian

Vernaza, M.G., & Chang Y.K. (2017). Survival of resistant starch during the processing of atmospheric and vacuum fried instant noodles. Food Sci. Technol, Campinas., 37(3), 425-431.

Waniska, R.D., Yi, T., Lu, J., Xue-Ping, L., Xu, W., & Lin, H. (1999). Effects of preheating temperature, moisture, and sodium metabisulfite content on quality of noodles prepared from maize flour or meal. J Food Sci Tech., 5, 339-346.
How to Cite
Muhandri, T., Aminullah, A., Subarna, S., Taqi, F. M., Nurtama, B., & Fauzi, M. S. (2023). Optimization on the manufacturing process of fried instant corn noodle using response surface methodology. Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society, 11(3). Retrieved from https://www.thefutureoffoodjournal.com/index.php/FOFJ/article/view/623
Research Articles