Thailand’s maize seed market structure, conduct, performance (2020-06-13)
Seed is one of the fastest-growing industries in agricultural sector, and maize seed industry in Thailand is one of the most developed and most advanced industries compared to other developing countries. The success of maize seed industry in Thailand is due to public and international organizations’ contributions in building infrastructure for research and promoting the role of the private sector in the industry during the early years, and a long-term commitment of investment in research and development by private companies added to the expansion of the industry. Building on this success, this paper aims at analysing the industry structure, conduct and performance of the maize seed industry in Thailand to provide recommendations for seed business development, and policy recommendations for Thailand to become a leader of seed industry in the region. The results from this study suggest that maize seed industry in Thailand is oligopolistic and moderately concentrated. The business conduct of maize seed firms are differentiation of prices and products, principally varieties suitable to segmented markets. The business performance of the maize seed firms suggested that large multination companies have larger market power from product innovation, but local small business can still profitably participate in the oligopolistic competition environment if they effectively generate sales revenue using public varieties. It is suggested that policies towards building research capacity of local companies will be needed to elevate the competitiveness of local business which will encourage future sustainable development of Thailand’s seed industry.
The effect of edible coating with combined Thymus Vulgaris extract and glycerol monoestearate on oyster mushroom ҆s shelf life (2020-07-30)
Shelf-life of mushrooms is very low, because of several characteristics, such as their thin epidermal structure and high respiration rates. They tend to lose their quality after harvest. Hence, mushrooms need supportive care to keep freshness. Several protective methods have been recommended. In the current study, the effect of lipid-edible coating with different doses of glycerol monoestearate and thyme extract, for the extending of edible mushroom’s shelf life was evaluated. After, preparation of aqueous thyme extract (TE) by the Clevenger method, the mushroom treatments were prepared with different concentrations of the glycerol monoestearate (GMS) and thyme extract. The chemical composition of the extract was performed using GC-MS method. The texture tightness, color and weight loss were respectively, measured using the texture analyzer, HunterLab and digital balance. The Sensory and antimicrobial evaluations were also performed during the 15 days. Analysis of the extract has detected the 23 chemical compositions with the different structures and functional groups. The high texture tightness and the low weight loss determined for the mixture of GMS and 150 mg/kg TE, and the color indices (a*b*L*) have less significant change by adding the GMS with doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg of TE. Furthermore, the high antimicrobial activities resolute for the GMS+TE150 mg/kg. In conclusion, the GMS+EO150 mg/kg coating could be used significantly for preserving the quality of oyster mushrooms throughout long-term storage
Effects of salicylic acid, putrescine and moring leaf extract application on storability, quality attributes and bioactive compounds of plum cv. 'Golden Japan' (2020-07-30)
Background: Plum fruits constitute a good source of natural antioxidant substances. Particularly, plums contain large amounts of phenolic compounds and flavonoids that have natural antioxidant activity which is useful to human health. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of foliar sprays with salicylic acid (SA), putrescine (PUT) and moringa leaf extract (MLE) on the fruit quality attributes and bioactive compounds of 'Golden Japan' plums under cold storage conditions. Plum trees were sprayed twice; at fruit set stage and one month later during seasons 2018 and 2019 by combinations from SA (3 and 4 mmol/L), PUT (3 and 4 mmol/L) and MLE (5 and 10%), as well as distilled water (control). Fruits were harvested at maturity stage and stored at 0°C with relative humidity 85-90% for eight weeks.
Results: With advance storage period, fruit weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total carotenoids content (TCC) and total phenolics content (TPC) increased significantly while the fruit firmness, lightness (L*), hue angle (h°) of colour, titratable acidity (TA), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidant activity (AA) decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were observed between different treatments in maintenance on all measured parameters when compared to control. At the same time, a combined SA at 3mmol/ L, PUT at 4 3mmol/ L and MLE at 10% treatment was found to be more effective than other treatments in decreasing the weight loss, softening and maintaining titratable acidity, total carotenoids, total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in plum fruits during storage at 0 °C.
Conclusion: It was concluded that preharvest treatment of plum fruits with salicylic acid, putrescine and moringa leaf extract was effective in delaying the ripening processes and can be used commercially to extend the storage life of postharvest plum fruits with acceptable fruit quality.
Estimate of correlation between the metrological drought on Ethiopia the Hydrological drought on Egypt (2020-07-30)
Drought is one of the most complex natural phenomena and one of the main natural causes affecting agriculture, the economy and the environment in the world, and its impact has become evident significantly on the level of life on the globe in recent decades. It leads to droughts in different regions, so assessing the intensity of the drought period is one of the most important tools for sustainable agriculture, as drought has become a phenomenon in many parts of the world, especially in the East and North Africa region.The most important type of drought is metrological and hydrological drought, Drought indices were used to survey drought and demonstrate its performance. As a country in the world, Egypt suffers from water scarcity, especially in recent years. Therefore, the importance of studying Ethiopia as a study area comes due to the presence of the Blue Nile, which contributes about 85% of the Nile River's revenue.Metrological drought was calculated by the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), and by hydrological by the Streamflow Drought Index (SDI) during the period from 1950 to 2017 based on the availability of the recorded data for meteorological stations in Ethiopia, and the streamflow for Dongola station, and then these data were evaluated using various methods, including homogeneity between the data for each station by considering the different time scales of periods 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months., As a result, There are three seasons of rain in Ethiopia, Kiremt is the main rainy season from June to September, Bega is the dry season from October to January, Belg is the lowest rainy season from February to May and Ethiopia characterized by four precipitation regimes, and we found a correlation between the meteorological index (SPI) for five stations in Ethiopia, and the hydrological index (SDI) for Dongola.Keywords: Ethiopia; Dongola; Meteorological drought; Hydrological drought.