Optimization of cassava dried noodle using hydrocolloid and protein isolates (2020-11-28)
Cassava flour has the potential to be used as a substituent of flour in making dry noodles. This study aims to obtain the optimum formulation of flour, hydrocolloid content and protein isolate content. Formula optimization of cassava noodle has been done by using two types of cassava flour: native and pre-gelatinization, adding additional food additives such as hydrocolloid (xanthan gum and konjac glucomannan) and pea protein isolate. The design of the formulation and optimization is done by D-optimal combined design method through Design Expert 7.0®. There are 31 different formulas for a test response that includes hardness, tensile strength, and cooking loss. Considering the three responses, the recommended optimum noodles formulation is based on pre-gelatinized cassava flour, 2% xanthan gum, 0% konjac glucomannan, and 4% protein isolate. The selected formula has water content, ash content, protein content, fat content, and carbohydrate content of 5.92%; 0.793%; 4.29%; 1,342%; and 87.025%. The level of consumer acceptance of texture, aroma, color, and overall parameters has a range of 3 (regular) to 4 (like). The optimum formula may be used for product development of cassava dried noodles.
Consumer acceptability of rice-like grains made from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and corn (Zea mays) (2020-11-28)
Rice is one of the most important crops in Asia. There are several crops that can be utilized as an alternative to rice. This can help reduce the burden of rice importation and improve food security. The purpose of this study was to develop a consumer acceptable rice-like grains from cassava and corn. A total of 220 combinations of rice-like grains from different cultivars of cassava (Binulak, Lakan 1, Lakan 2, Rajah 4) and corn (IPB Var 6, IPB Var 8, IPB Var 11, IPB Var 13) were developed. Most acceptable combinations were then subjected to consumer acceptability testing. Results showed that the five most acceptable combinations are Lakan 2-IPB Var 8, Binulak-IPB Var 8, Binulak-IPB Var 6, Lakan 2-IPB Var 13, and Rajah 4-IPB Var 6. Eighty two percent (82 %) of the respondents preferred Lakan 2-IPB Var 13 from among all the 20 combinations. These were also perceived as the most comparable and acceptable to rice (r=0.753; p<0.01). The study revealed that production of rice-like grains from other staples can potentially be an alternative to rice. Further studies may be done to improve the process thus making the product more similar to rice.
An Exploration on Factors Influencing Certified and Farm-Saved Seed Use: A Case Study in Turkish Wheat Farming (2020-11-28)
Seed is an important input in wheat growing and it is the case for in all sort of crop production. Certified seed is the first condition for productivity and accordingly certified wheat seed use is being encouraged by the government since 2005 in Turkey. This study examined the factors affecting the certified and farmer-saved seed use in wheat farming in Turkey. The result of the analyses showed that there is a significant difference between the farmers using certified seed and farm-saved seed, considering farmers experience, the purpose of wheat growing, the status of farmer with respect to system registration, agricultural credit use, size of total farmland and size of wheat cultivation area. As a result, it can be inferred that high-quality wheat production is associated with use of certified seeds. In this context, maintaining the certified seed supports is also important for certified seed use.
Engaging stakeholders in traditional food products through dissemination of knowledge and innovation based in digital platforms (2020-11-28)
The agrofood sector has a great sectorial and business dispersion, constituting, in parallel, a relevant space of the European and national economy. In addition to the economic and social impact, the growth of the sector is also an opportunity for the development of rural areas and agriculture, particularly in view of Europe's shortages in food raw materials. The need for continuous improvement, and market developments of this sector, require that innovation processes occur. This process has been facilitated by the development of information and communication technologies, and by the emergence of social networks that facilitate knowledge sharing. The NEWFOOD - Food Technologies Valorization Project is framed in the field of Knowledge and Technology Transfer and is oriented towards innovation in traditional food products. One of its objectives is to actively disseminate knowledge, skills and resources to the entities involved including stakeholders from the relevant economic sectors. This paper aims to identify and describe the role of social networks and other digital platforms used to meet this goal and the impact achieved. Following a single exploratory case study, the methodological procedures included a design of the digital communication plan, structure, and contents, and the assessment of its impact. Several digital content were developed and distributed to bring innovators and researchers to promote innovations in traditional food products and to raise sector stakeholder’s awareness about potential of exploitation. Social media support tools associated with the project (Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube), and the platforms (Knowledge Portfolio, innovation platform) reaching some 6000 followers/shareholders like students, entrepreneurs and other professionals in the sector. Our results supported by the dissemination materials developed and by the social networks used contributed to promote technological innovation and for the generation of new ideas for products and services in this sector, and the alignment between stakeholders.
Small-scale milk production systems in Colombia: a regional analysis of a potential strategy for providing food security (2020-11-28)
Colombia tiene una diversidad agroecológica que favorece la implementación de sistemas de producción de leche. La producción lechera es una parte integral de la economía rural y contribuye positivamente a la nutrición e ingresos de las familias. El objetivo de este estudio fue clasificar los sistemas de producción de leche en la comunidad de El Peñón (Municipio de Sibate, Colombia), y analizar los resultados en relación con el concepto de seguridad alimentaria. El estudio evaluó componentes relacionados con los niveles y la administración del producto utilizando variables como (i) ubicación, aspectos biofísicos, uso y manejo de la tierra, (ii) recursos forrajeros y alimentación, (iii) recursos animales, (iv) reproducción y salud animal, (v) producción y comercialización de leche, y gestión comercial, (vi) mano de obra, infraestructura y equipo e (g) información del propietario. Se analizaron 18 granjas lecheras ubicadas en el área de estudio y, por lo tanto, se clasificaron mediante análisis de correspondencia múltiple y estudio descriptivo. La información se obtuvo de los sistemas de producción de leche mediante un cuestionario. El análisis de conglomerados nos permitió identificar modelos de producción heterogéneos debido a sus diversas condiciones de producción y los diferentes tamaños de unidades productivas. Los productores de leche fueron tipificados en 4 grupos como lácteos especializados (33%), lácteos semi-especializados (17%), lácteos a pequeña escala (28%) y granjas lecheras de propiedad familiar (22%). Los sistemas lácteos representan un potencial productivo para apoyar la seguridad alimentaria, especialmente los sistemas a pequeña escala. Por esta razón, es importante implementar modelos tecnológicos eficientes en sistemas lácteos a pequeña escala para contribuir a mejorar la seguridad alimentaria de la población.
Bacteriological quality and safety of some fluid dairy products sold in El Fayoum governorate, Egypt (2020-11-28)
The study was designed to assess the safety and bacteriological quality of one hundred and twenty samples including (small scale fluid cream, large scale Laban rayeb, Pasteurized milk and UHT milk) (30 of each). The samples were collected randomly in their retail packages from different localities in Fayoum province, Egypt. Samples were analyzed for total bacterial count (TBC), total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The mean value of TBC in small scale fluid cream and pasteurized milk were 1.68×106 ± 1.3×105 and 4.30×103 ±6.66×102 CFU / ml respectively. The mean value of Faecal coliforms in Fluid cream were 1.87×104 ± 8.18×103 CFU / ml. E. coli only present in fluid cream with a mean value of 2.25×103 ± 8.63×102 CFU / ml. Isolated E. coli strains were serologically identified as O125(16/30), O158 (10/30), O1 (4/30) with a percentage of 53.33%, 33.33 and 13.33% respectively. By using conventional PCR, E. coli were harbored aroA and fimH genes and not harbored STx1 and STx2. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the examined fluid cream samples, with a mean value of 7.56×104 ± 8.81×103, CFU / ml. High microbial counts of fluid cream may present a public health hazard to the consumers and so the study presented some recommendations to diminish the hazard from that product.
Awareness creation of smallholder farmers on and adoption of push-pull technology reduces fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) infestation on maize in Hawzien Woreda, Northern Ethiopia (2020-11-28)
Recently, maize (Zea mays L.) production by smallholder farmers in Ethiopia has been threatened by an exotic pest called fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Devising or adopting sustainable, effective, affordable and smallholder farmers-friendly management strategies for the control of this pest are, therefore, vital. Push-Pull Technology (PPT) is considered one of the management methods for the control of FAW in East Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine pre- and post-training perceptions of smallholder farmers on FAW and PPT, and evaluate the status of the pest and plant damage on PPT adopted maize fields through rain-fed and irrigated farming. We found that the smallholder farmers had little or no knowledge of biology, identification, and management methods of FAW and about PPT before training. However, the farmers responded to the acquisition of adequate knowledge and skills on these topics after training. The FAW eggs and larvae and the proportion of plant damages were significantly lower in PPT treated maize plots relative to maize monocrop plots. This study depicts the adoption of PPT by smallholder farmers along with training resulted in the reduction of FAW. Thus, adoption and extension of PPT are expected to play a vital role in the management of FAW mainly in the smallholder farming system.