• Using Moringa Oleifera Seed Cake and Compost as Organic Soil Amendments for Sustainable Agriculture in Valencia Orange Orchard (2021-11-24)
    Thanaa Sh. M. Mahmoud, Nahla A. Hemdan, Hani A. Mansour, Aboelfetoh M. Abdalla ,

    This work was conducted during two consecutive seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 at the Experimental Research Station of National Research Centre at Nubaria, El Behiera governorate, Egypt. Twelve year old Valencia orange trees (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) budded on Volkamer lemon rootstock, grown in sandy soil under drip irrigation system as plant materials to study the effect of six organic soil amendment treatments on soil hydrophysical properties, soil water retention, soil water movement, plant nutrient contents, yield, fruit quality and water productivity. Treatments namely, moringa seed cake 100% (3 tons/fed), 1 moringa seed cake: 2 compost, 1 moringa seed cake: 1 compost, 2 moringa seed cake: 1 compost, compost 100% (3 tons/fed) and control (none moringa seed cake and none compost) on nutrient contents, yield and fruit quality. Results showed that the application of moringa seed cake in combination with compost at 2:1 achieved the best results in terms of soil properties and water productivity of Valencia orange trees .This in turn improved nutritional status and increased the productivity of trees as well as fruit quality compared to the control. 

  • A Qualitative Study on the Usage of Food Enhancers in Home Food Preparation among the Young Working Women in Malaysia (2021-11-29)
    Ain Maisarah Samad, Mohd Salehuddin Mohd Zahari, Hairul Nizwan Abdul Majid, Mohd Hafiz Hanafiah,

    This paper explores the usage of food enhancers in food preparation among young working women in Malaysia. In this qualitative study, the study informants were drafted using purposive snowball strategy to take part in a semi-structured interview. The data were recorded and analysed accordingly to the research aims. Majority of the informants claimed that they used food enhancer to enhance the flavour and taste of the food while reducing cooking time, minimise preparation processes and time spent in the kitchen. As they understand the effect of food enhancers, the informants claimed they do try to avoid the usage of food enhancers and only will opt it whenever their cooking time is scarce. The study contributes to a growing literature on the consumption of food enhancers among the young generation. Its findings reinforce the need for public awareness to promote controlled consumption of food enhancers and additives, especially among modern households. 

  • Determination of fat, salt and sodium contents of selected fast food items available for sale in Colombo city, Sri Lanka: An approach to colour coding of fast foods (2021-11-29)
    Rasika Gunarathne, Eresha Mendis, Buddhika G. Silva, Renuka Jayatissa,

    Fast food has become a popular trend among Sri Lankan consumers. However, the nutritional facts of these food items that aid consumer awareness are scantly found in Sri Lanka. This study aimed to examine fat, salt and sodium contents of selected fast food types sold in Colombo city. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify the fast food consumption patterns of the target population. Fat, salt and sodium contents of highly preferred fast food types selected based on the survey, namely; Chinese fish roll (CR), wade (WD), chicken koththu(CK), chicken fried rice (FR) and doughnut (DG) were analysed using Soxhlet, titration and flame photometry methods respectively. Comparative analysis of lipid extraction between Soxhlet and Soxtec were done for selected fast food samples. Based on the survey, 73.30% of respondents were students, 79.30% were in between 18-25 years and 68% preferred to consume fast foods in between main meals. According to the results, a serving portion of these food items did not exceed (p˃0.05) the RMDA (recommended maximum daily allowance) of fat. However, CK and FR have exceeded (p˂0.05) the RMDA of salt and sodium. When comparing the results obtained for fat with the colour coding system under the food act, WD and DG were assigned red while CR, CK, FR were assigned amber colour. Considering the salt content, only DG was designated by amber colour whereas other four types of food is in the category of red colour. There was no significant difference (p˃0.05) between Soxtec extraction at 130 ºC and Soxhlet extraction at 70 ºC. Therefore, The Soxtec extraction was time effective where high temperature fat extraction was applicable. Frequent consumption of the fast food can lead to exceed RMDA values of fat, salt, sodium and calories. Holistic policy intervention is warranted to minimise the risk of frequent consumption of fast food.

  • A Farmer’s Perceptions on Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies in Yendi Municipality, Ghana. (2021-11-29)
    Selase Adanu, Theophilus Abole, Shine Gbedemah,

    It is common to hear and read about climate change in literature, media and interpersonal discussions among farmers and environmental groups. Farmers understanding of climate change differ in the midst of these discussions because of individual experiences and perceptions after many years of farming. The rainfall is declining and the temperature is rising are the common perceptions farmers hold on climate change which they see as adversely affecting agriculture. In moments of such adversity, farmers think about what adaptation measures to implement or are already implementing. The objectives of this study were to find out what farmers perceive as climate change, what they consider as the causes of the change and how they adapt to climate change. Research questions investigated were what are farmers’ perceptions on climate change? What do farmers consider as the causes of climate change? And how do farmers adapt to climate change? Methods used for collecting data were administering of questionnaires to farmers in six towns in the Yendi Municipality, obtaining information through focused group discussions and talking to agricultural extension officers. Data analysis was done using the excel software and the results shown in tables, graphs and charts. Study results showed farmers acknowledged that the climate is changing, and the changes are as a result of bad farming practices including cutting down of trees, influence of super natural forces in preventing rainfall, and changes in wind direction which deprive communities of rainfall. Adaptation measures to cope with climate change mentioned by the farmers include, crop diversification with the view to plant drought resistant crops, and diversifying from high grass consuming ruminants to low grass consuming ones.

  • Application of check-all-that-apply (CATA) in sensory profile assessment of arabica dark roast and black pepper mixed coffee (2021-11-29)

    Black pepper coffee is one of the developing innovations in Bangka Belitung Province, Indonesia. This study aimed to assess black pepper coffee's sensory profile using the CATA (check-all-that-apply) rapid analysis method and find the formula and brewing technique most consumers liked. The study consisted of two stages: determining the sensory attributes of black pepper coffee and taking sensory data from coffee consumers with coffee and black pepper powder ratios (98:2; 96:4; and 94:6) and brewing methods (cold brew, drip V60 brew, and tubruk). The analysis used in this CATA included the Cochran's Q test, correspondence analysis, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), and penalty analysis using the XLSTAT 2019 software. The results showed that there were 14 sensory attributes in this research, including bitterness, acidity, sweetness, spicy, caramel, black tea, dark chocolate, smoky, hints of black pepper, hints of cinnamon, hints of ginger, hints of lemongrass, brown sugar, and body/mouthfeel. Statistical analysis showed that the addition of black pepper and type of brewing had a significant effect (5% level) on black pepper coffee's sensory attributes, except for bitterness, spicy, and hints of black pepper based on the Cochran’s test. According to the panelists, the ideal black pepper coffee was coffee with acidity, sweetness, body/mouthfeel, spicy, hints of black pepper, and bitter with attributes of acidity, sweetness, and hints of black pepper were included in the must-have attribute. Based on the overall analysis, cold brew coffee with 4% black pepper was a treatment that close to the ideal black pepper coffee.