• A scoping review on the presence of antibiotic residues in milk and the government strategies to control the use of antibiotics in milk industry in India (2022-10-15)
    Silvy Mathew, Dr. Navya Vyas,

    In dairy farms, antibiotics are administered for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Lack of adherence to withdrawal periods and irrational use of antibiotics in the feed may lead to antibiotic residues (AR) in milk. Evidence suggests that the risk of AR in the milk is believed to be higher in developing countries due to multifarious reasons. The issue of residues in milk is predominantly concerning in India, as it has the largest consumer base in the world. Many studies have identified that consuming milk contaminated with antibiotics may pose myriads of health hazards and therefore is a matter of grave concern. This scoping review was conducted to collate all the information available on AR in milk, its associated health risks, and the government initiatives that are in place to combat the inappropriate antibiotic use in the Indian dairy industry. The review was conducted systematically using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines, 2020 as its framework. A comprehensive search was conducted using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Google. A total of 19 articles were retrieved for the AR in milk, and 11 grey literature were identified for the government initiatives to control the use of antibiotics. Analysis of the collated information revealed that tetracyclines were the most commonly occurring AR in milk. Additionally, maximum articles identified AMR as the most common health hazard that may arise due to AR in milk, followed by allergic reactions. Finally, the review concluded that there is a requirement for more stringent regulations to curb AR in the dairy industry in India.

  • Prevalence of some enteric pathogens in table eggs with special reference to E. coli O 157: H 7E (2022-10-15)
    Marwa Mohamed Abd El-Gawad, Adel EL-KHOLY , Mohamed SHATER2 , Mohamed Zeinhom,

    The present investigation was designed to study the incidence of some enteric pathogens in table eggs with special references to E. coli O157: H7. A total of 250 table eggs samples (75 baladi hen ҆s, 75 white farm hen ҆s, 75 brown farm hen ҆s and 25 duck eggs) were collected randomly from poultry farms, groceries, supermarkets and street vendors in El Fayoum city, Egypt. Each baladi hen ҆s egg sample represented by five eggs, while each farm hen ҆s and duck eggs represented by three eggs. The samples were examined for the presence of coliforms, fecal coliforms, E.coli, E. coli O157: H7, Shiga like toxin genes 1&2, Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica. Isolates were identified by biochemical, serological & molecular (PCR) methods. The obtained results in the present study revealed that the examined samples of shells and contents of Baladi hens ҆, poultry farms ҆ (White and Brown) and Ducks ҆ eggs were contaminated with Coliforms with incidences of 25.33, 5.33, 1.33, 4.00, 5.33, 0.00, 0.00 and 2.66%, respectively, while, Fecal coliforms were in 8.0, 2.7, 0.0, 20.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 & 0.0 %, respectively, Ecoli was present in 2.7, 1.3, 0.0, 8.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 & 0.0 %, respectively. Despite of Shiga like toxin genes 1&2 were found in shells of Baladi hens ҆ eggs and Ducks ҆ eggs, respectively, E. coli O157: H7 was failed to be detected. Moreover, Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated only in 4% of Ducks ҆ eggs shells, while, Yersinia enterocolitica was failed to be isolated in this study. Highest rates of contamination were observed in Ducks ҆ and Baladi hens ҆ eggs, while, poultry farms ҆ (White and Brown) eggs were the best type and advised to be consumed.  The potential health hazards and the suggested control measures of the isolated strains had been discussed.

  • The effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the changes in the acidity of probiotic milk during storage (2022-09-20)

    The probiotic products are functional products for human health. To study the changes in the acidity of milk containing probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus, three containers containing 3 liters of sterilized low-fat milk with 1.5% fat prepared from Mihan Company were considered three groups. The results showed that the resulting changes in milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria due to acidity index were recorded in a two-hour period to reach the acidity of 42 °C in (milk) in the incubator at 38 °C and during storage in the refrigerator. An increase in the acidity of probiotic milk compared to the control sample was observed on the first day after production. The acidification rate increased during the fermentation under the influence of L. acidophilus bacterium, and the final acidity after the end of the fermentation period in the probiotic milk was higher than the control sample.

  • Physico-chemical Characterization of Four Species Indonesian Mangrove Fruits as Food Source (2022-09-30)
    Purwiyatno Hariyadi, Indah, Slamet, Azis,

    Carbohydrates in flour and starch are essential ingredients for the food industry, often used as a thickening, gelling, bulking, and water retention agents. In Indonesia, mangrove fruits have traditionally been used as carbohydrate source.  However, studies related to the physicochemical of fruit, flour, and starch of mangrove as a food source are still minimal. This study reported the Physico-chemical characteristic of four species of Indonesian mangroves fruits, namely Avicennia sp., Bruguiera sp., Rhizophora sp., and Sonneratia sp, and its respective starches. Mangrove fruits of Avicennia sp., and Sonneratia sp., are safe for direct consumption or further processing. Meanwhile, Rhizophora sp. and Bruguiera sp. are not recommended for direct consumption because they contain cyanide. However, proper food processing can reduce cyanide to safe levels. Our results suggest that mangrove fruit flour can be utilized as a food source. Bruguiera's starch can provide thickness in a short cooking time based on the pasting characteristics. Rhizophora’s starch is not suitable for use as a thickening agent in cold and semi-solid food products. Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp. require a long cooking time to produce a good consistency, but this consistency can withstand well at cold temperatures.

  • Proximate biochemical parameters and antioxidant capac- ity of eight loquat genotypes (Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl.) from Zegzel Valley of Morocco (2022-10-15)

    The loquat fruit is considered as a very precious product due to its economic and health benefits. For this reason, the evaluation of their biochemical profile and antioxidant activity has become required. Indeed, healthy fruits are collected from eight loquat genotypes belonging to four regions of the Zegzel Valley. As a results, loquat fruit analysed showed a great pomological and biochemical richness. From the eight genotypes, the ‘Z1’ produced the biggest fruits (54.55 g) while ‘TA6’ had the highest sugar content (54.85 mg. g-1). The genotypes of ‘TA5’, ‘TA6’ and ‘TA7’ showed the highest levels of fructose (31.64 mg. g-1), sucrose (21.09 mg. g-1) and glucose (10.34 mg. g-1) respectively. In addition, the ‘T2’ showed the highest content of flavonoids (59.58 µg RE. g-1), vitamin C (14.19 mg AAE/100g) and organic acids which are malic acid (193.75 mg/100 g), quininic acid (107.25) and succinic acid (12.6 mg/100 g). For the total phenolics are abundant in ‘TZN1’ (186.0.5 µg GAEg-1), while the greatest carotenoid content was revealed in ‘TA7’ (90.65µg ß-carotene g-1). Concerning proteins content, the highest amount observed for ‘Z7’ (0.98 g/100g), whereas the tannin content appeared similar in all genotypes (2.94-2.61 µg. g-1). Regarding the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP tests, the ‘Z7’ recorded the highest antioxidant capacity compared to the other genotypes. Overall, the quantity of major bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity varied considerably among the eight genotypes. According to the results obtained in this study, the eight loquat genotypes have a great pomological and biochemical potential that can be exploited in vegetative propagation and improvement programs of this tree.


  • The Relevance of the Keduk’an System to the Realization of Food Sovereignty: A Study in Juku Batu Village, Indonesia (2022-10-25)
    Ahmad Zazili, Dewi Septiana,

    Keduk'an is a profit sharing system for agricultural products in Juku Batu Village, Banjit District, Way Kanan Regency, Lampung Province, Indonesia. This keduk'an system is different from the kedokan system in the others areas. The purpose of this study is to find the characteristics of the power system and its relationship to food sovereignty. This research is important because it is related to efforts to fulfill food for the poor. The research method used is Socio Legal with a descriptive approach to dig up information from the parties involved in the public health system. The research location is Juku Batu Village, Banjit District, Way Kanan Regency, Lampung, Indonesia. The results of the study found three important things that were relevant in food sovereignty, namely: first, in the status system of economic values, cultural values, and social values, and religious values. This duk'an system can be adopted elsewhere in order to realize food sovereignty.


  • Financing for the climate change adaptation of organic export agriculture in Peru (2022-10-24)
    Edelina Coayla, Luis Jiménez,

    The objective of this research is to analyze financing for the climate change adaptation of organic export agriculture using the methods of correlation and logarithmic regression, as well as exploring the sources of financing. In a context of high international demand, we find that Peruvian organic agro-exports grow in direct relation to the increase in the land area used for organic crops. In the period 2000–2020, exports of organic products achieved a continuous rise, and in 2020 they accounted for 7% of all agro-exports. However, so far little financing has been found internationally for the climate change adaptation of organic agriculture. Among the main financiers at the international level are the Green Climate Fund; IDB Invest, which finances an agro-export fruits and vegetable company in Peru; the FAO, which  finances  “Yachachiq–Kamayoq” network of women-led bio-businesses in actions to adapt to climate change in Peru; IFAD, which finances the agricultural project “Avanzar Rural” in the Peruvian highlands and Amazonia; and the Peruvian National Institute of Agrarian Innovation, which finances an association of farmers in the Piura region to improve the export of organic bananas to the Netherlands and Germany. It is recommended that policy-makers in Peru implement adaptation options—among them, an increase in the land area used for organic production to promote food security, as well as accessible and innovative climate financing for the adaptation of small organic producers.

  • Comparison of motives to buy organic foods among middle income urban consumers of the state of Mexico, Mexico (2022-10-25)
    Pedro Arturo Martinez Hernandez, Ema Maldonadom Siman, Diana Stephany García García, José Luis Zaragoza Ramírez, Raymundo Rodríguez de Lara, Citlalli Celeste González Ariceaga,

    Expansion of organic food production requires increasing the number of organic food consumers. The aim of the study was to explore the relative importance of motives to buy organic foods in consumers of the state of Mexico by applying a 21-item questionnaire, each item with a set of fixed options, the consumer decided which of the options was closer to his/her own opinion. Frequencies expressed as percent of respondents by option within an item were compared by Chi-square. Questionnaires analysed were 618. Decision to buy organic food was found in over 50% (p<0.05) of the respondents, indicating that there is a need to increase the visibility among consumers of the organic food advantages. Above 50% (p<0.05) of the respondents thought that organic foods were better than non-organic, this believe is a stronghold to gain organic food consumers. For 30% (p<0.05) of the respondents a major restrain to buy organic foods is that they are difficult to find and there was low availability; 80% (p<0.05) of the respondents buy organic food as a personal decision no matter other´s people opinion about organic foods; still there is a need to build-up a social environment favourable to buy organic foods. Consumers’ trust in all links of the organic food chain needs to be strengthened as there were around 40% (p<0.05) respondents that their trust was not higher than average. It was concluded that drivers to increase the number of organic food consumers among the population of the state of Mexico are increasing availability, diversity and visibility of organic foods, expanding the knowledge of the benefits of organic foods over non-organic and strengthen consumers’ trust in all links of the organic food chain.

  • Call home gardening for enhancing the resilience of household food security post-pandemic COVID-19 (2022-10-25)
    Chooi Lin Phooi, Elisa Azura Azman, Roslan Ismail, Uraiwan Tongkaemkaew,

    Food is a basic need and essential in human beings. COVID-19 pandemic challenges us from food and nutrient security, and thus resilient food system is necessary. Home gardening may improve our self-sufficiency level and have a sustainable food system to cope with the challenging situation. Between, home gardening brings many benefits to human health, including physical, mental, and social. Nevertheless, the most significant challenges of home gardening, especially in urban areas, are the substrate properties, light intensity, and temperature. Therefore, further investigation should investigate the impact on food crop yield on a household level, especially in urban areas in different countries. 

  • Assessment and Evaluation of Indira Canteen on Food Safety and Food Security in Urban Bengaluru. (2022-10-25)

    Food security is a main cause of concern in developing and underdeveloped countries. It is a major challenge for governments to provide subsidized and safe food to deserving sections of society. Inspiration from the success of Amma canteen led to an initiative by the Karnataka government concerning the subsidized food program, Indira canteen. Food safety will determine the success or failure of the scheme; therefore, this study aims to assess the effectiveness of the canteen in terms of food safety and food security. Random sampling method was used to select 70 food handlers and 150 consumers from Bengaluru (east, west, north, south, and central). The data was collected using a pretested questionnaire and using interview cum observation technique. Results revealed that the majority (71.4%) of the food handlers have been trained for food safety before joining the job. A significant difference was observed between trained/untrained food handlers in following the food safety norms while handling the food (p<0.05). Results regarding consumers revealed that the majority (87.3%) were males and 12.7% were females. About 44% belonged to the lower middle class and 1% to the upper-middle-class. It was observed that 70% of the consumers skipped at least one meal and 65.3% restricted variety in food due to cost. About 97.3% were satisfied with the cost-wise quality of food in the canteen. Overall acceptance of food in the canteen was 94.6%. Hence it can be concluded from the study that Indira canteen is a successful and effective venture for food security by the Karnataka government that is, capable of providing subsidized and safe food to the consumers.

  • Sustainable Eating Futures: A case Study in Saudi Arabia (2022-10-25)
    Muhammad Waqar Ashraf, Faisal Alanezi,

    Food systems are central to human societies. Developing sustainable, nutritious and healthy food systems will be crucial to accomplish sustainable development goals. The multifarious politics underlying food production, distribution as well as consumption are often ignored. The present paper analyses different factors affecting food consumption in the local population of Saudi Arabia and relates it to supply chain. Different futuristic scenarios are discussed to develop sustainable food consumption practices in Saudi Arabia. This paper also addresses opportunities at the intersection of food and smart technologies. Moreover, the scenarios discuss the roles played by society and technological advancements in food conservation and consumption in the Saudi society.