The Impact Of Corruption On Food Security From A Macro Perspective (2021-02-18)
Despite the recent developments food security is one of the common problems of humanity. In order to eliminate this problem, various initiatives are taken in the fields of political and international relations backed by many academic studies that are conducted to scrutinize the dynamics of the problem and inspire the policies to be implemented. This study aims at providing macro solutions to the problem through the study of the relationship between food security and corruption in view of variables such as unemployment, dependent population and per capita income. Thus, the panel data of 75 countries between the years 2012-2016 have been analysed using Driscoll and Kraay Method. According to the obtained results, corruption, although minor, has an impact on food security. Thus, in order to realize food security the following actions need to be taken: minimizing bureaucracy; increasing interaction with the public power for the sake of activities that would support good governance of the society and non-governmental organizations; minimizing the human factor by using technological innovations more effectively in public services; and putting the deterrent laws that would eliminate favouritism into effect.
Determinants of organic food purchases intention: the application of an extended theory of planned behaviour (2021-02-18)
This investigated the application of the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) to determine Iranian students’ intention to purchase organic food products. The statistical population comprised all students in the field of agriculture sciences at Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran. Data were collected from 340 participants. The research instrument was a questionnaire developed through a comprehensive literature study. The content validity of the instrument was ascertained by a panel of university professors and its reliability by Cronbach’s alpha. Data were analyzed using SPSS v22 and LISREL8.80 software packages. The results of the structural equations model (SEM) showed that the variables of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, moral norms, health consciousness, and environmental concern could account for 86 percent of the variance of students’ intention to purchase organic products. In addition, results revealed that environmental concern and health consciousness highly influenced (41 percent) attitude towards organic food products. Based on the results recommendations are made.
Reaction to a low-carbon footprint food logo and other sustainable diet promotions in a UK University’s Student Union ‘Living Lab’ (2021-02-24)
Purpose: Public sector catering outlets have been proposed as ideal places to try new sustainable food choice interventions. We report on promotions conducted as part of a “Living Lab” at the University of Sheffield Students Union during 2019.Methodology: Activities include 1) a survey of dietary habits, attitudes and knowledge of staff and students (n=643). 2) A low environmental impact indicator logo was created and implemented in different ways across four food outlets in the Students Union (some outlets also provided information in dining areas). 3) Sales data (intervention period and the same period in the previous year) were analysed. 4) On the day of the global Climate Strikes (20th September 2019), a food outlet introduced additional one-day-only promotions on low impact menu options; sales impact was assessed.Findings: An average of 39.4% of respondents recalled the low environmental impact indicator logo. There was a significant increase in use of oat milk compared to 2018, but non significant changes to other low and medium impact food sales. In one outlet, high impact items had the greatest total value of sales in 2018, whereas in 2019 medium impact foods had the greatest value of sales, suggesting a positive trend towards less impactful food choices. The Climate Strike intervention saw a decrease in beef burger sales and an increase in chicken and meat-free burger sales.Originality/value: This paper covers interventions to promote sustainable food choices and their efficacy across a University with ideas for future avenues of research.
Diversification of maize-based intercropping systems in tropical rainforest agroecosystem of Nigeria: productivity, profitability and soil fertility (2021-02-12)
Monocropping of maize is becoming unsustainable in the rainforest agroecosystem of Nigeria. This is due to the adverse impact of climate change such as increasing pests and disease infestations and erratic rainfall patterns coupled with underutilization of resources. Smallholder farmers in this tropical agroecosystems are in dire need of adaptive and resilient cropping systems to ensure food, nutrition, and livelihood security. Thus, this study aims to identify adaptive maize-based systems for the rainforest agroecology of Nigeria with high productivity, increased profitability, and enhanced soil fertility. The maize-based cropping systems comprised of maize sole; maize + cowpea; maize + groundnut; and maize + sweet potato. Results showed that the system productivity of maize + sweet potato (5.1 t ha–1) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) than maize sole (2.0 t ha–1); maize + cowpea (2.9 t ha–1); and maize + groundnut (2.5 t ha–1). Maize + sweet potato system ($ 808 ha–1) significantly increased the net income in terms of monetary profits compared to maize sole ($ 524 ha–1); maize + cowpea ($ 618 ha–1); and maize + groundnut ($ 560 ha–1). However, the net benefit-cost ratio of maize + sweet potato (1.17) and maize + cowpea (1.15) are similar. The effect of cowpea intercrop with maize affected the availability of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and organic carbon (OC) in soil. The intercrops of maize + sweet potato and maize + cowpea in this agroecosystem are sustainable and adaptive intercropping systems that are capable of meeting the food requirements and income stability of farmers while maintaining the soil health. Crop diversification through intercropping in tropical smallholder farming systems can contribute to food security and maintenance of the soil ecosystem services.
Awareness creation of smallholder farmers on and adoption of push-pull technology reduces fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) infestation on maize in Hawzien Woreda, Northern Ethiopia (2020-11-28)
Recently, maize (Zea mays L.) production by smallholder farmers in Ethiopia has been threatened by an exotic pest called fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Devising or adopting sustainable, effective, affordable and smallholder farmers-friendly management strategies for the control of this pest are, therefore, vital. Push-Pull Technology (PPT) is considered one of the management methods for the control of FAW in East Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine pre- and post-training perceptions of smallholder farmers on FAW and PPT, and evaluate the status of the pest and plant damage on PPT adopted maize fields through rain-fed and irrigated farming. We found that the smallholder farmers had little or no knowledge of biology, identification, and management methods of FAW and about PPT before training. However, the farmers responded to the acquisition of adequate knowledge and skills on these topics after training. The FAW eggs and larvae and the proportion of plant damages were significantly lower in PPT treated maize plots relative to maize monocrop plots. This study depicts the adoption of PPT by smallholder farmers along with training resulted in the reduction of FAW. Thus, adoption and extension of PPT are expected to play a vital role in the management of FAW mainly in the smallholder farming system.
Research on factors affecting consumer decision on purchasing organic agricultural products in Danang, Vietnam (2021-02-24)
The study analyses the factors that influence consumer decisions on purchasing organic agricultural products in Danang. By synthesizing previous research, the authors establish Ordinal Logistic Regression (OLR) through survey questionnaires for 300 consumers in Danang in March 2019. The empirical model shows that there are eight factors, which have significantly positive impacts on the consumer decisions to purchase organic agricultural products, including: (i) the quality of products; (ii) trademarks, product labels; (iii) advertising, media, cultural factors; (iv) the understanding of the consumers about products of organic agriculture; (v) the convenience of the point of sale; (vi) income of consumers; (vii) psychological factors (attitudes, interests, taste, age, gender, etc.); (viii) the consumer’s career. The research also finds out the two factors affecting negatively on decision of consumers, including: (i) the value-added tax for the import of organic agricultural products; (ii) the age of the consumer. Based on quantitative results, the study proposes recommendations to promote the purchase of organic agriculture products in Danang.
Environmental Impacts of Food Loss and Waste: Land Degradation (2021-02-24)
Food waste and loss have a negative impact on the environment through water, land, energy and other natural resources that are used to produce non-consumable products. According to the results of an empirical study, to establish the degree of degradation of land resources as a result of food loss and waste, as well as to identify potential environmental benefits from reducing food loss and waste for agricultural land use. Methods: The authors’ methodological approach for assessing the impact of food loss and waste on the degradation of land resources is based on the following principles: objectives, unity, systemacity, scientific knowledge, and maximum informativeness. In accordance with the purpose of the study and the above principles, there has been developed an appropriate system of indicators. The methodology proposed by FAO in Ukraine is used to calculate the food loss and waste. The obtained results are of great importance in the formation of food security policy on the basis of sustainable land use development in Ukraine. First, it is empirically proven that zero food loss and waste on grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, meat and milk can significantly reduce the burden on land resources. Secondly, the reduction of food loss and waste has positive economic consequences.
Dependency and Economic Benefits of Use of Wild Food Plants use among Tribal Communities in Malai Madeshawara Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern India (2021-01-29)
Wild food plant resources and their indigenous knowledge of use, are in danger of being lost in areas where rapid environmental and cultural transformations have led to changes in eating habits and practices. The study assesses the dependency and economic value of wild food plant use among forest-dwelling communities. Community perceptions are used to assess the use patterns and interrelations of human well-being. The data is collected through a combination of semi-structured interviews, household questionnaire survey, and focus group discussions in eight villages. Wild food plants are of vital importance to local communities in terms of food security, dietary diversity, and household economy. Local communities use wild plant species as vegetables, fruits, beverages, in traditional therapeutic practices, and as a symbol of ethnic identity. The taxonomical distribution and diversity of 124 species belonging to 57 families and 91 genera are assessed. The cash value of wild food plants to a household range from ₹ 3200 to 6000 per year. These plants are a reliable safety net for many households and play a vital role in the livelihoods of the local people. The study emphasizes the dependency and livelihood importance of these plants.
Climate change impact on economic and irrigation requirements for sugarcane crop in Egypt (2021-02-12)
Availability of irrigation water is considered one of the major challenges faced by Egypt during current time and will be more difficult in the future with the limited water resources and linearly increase of population. The current study investigates irrigation demand for sugarcane cultivation areas in the Middle and Upper Egypt Governorates (Menia, Asyut, Sohag, Qena, Luxor and Aswan) during current time and under RCPs scenarios. The current data was collected from 1971 till 2000. The RCP data were collected for different scenarios (RCP 3, RCP 4.5, RCP 6 and RCP 8.5) during three time series (2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100). The highest evapotranspiration values during current and future conditions was found in Luxor and Aswan governorates; while the lowest evapotranspiration values were recorded in Menia and Asyut. All RCPs scenarios were significantly higher than current conditions. Moreover, the highest irrigation requirements under RCP scenarios were recorded in Aswan and Luxor under RCP 8.5 during 2071-2100 time series. While the lowest irrigation requirement under climate change were found in Menia under RCP3 during 2011-2040 time series. Irrigation requirement for sugarcane under current and future condition was demonstrated by interpolated maps.
Determination Of The Factors Affecting The Amount Of Food Waste Generated From Households In Turkey (2021-02-12)
Aim of this study is to put forward and discuss the analysis results of various factors, on the creation of food waste from households.Online survey application was used with 1488 individuals participated in the study 32.9% of the participants stated that they form 0-1 kg of food waste.The main reasons for food waste are;mouldy food etc.,food left in the refrigerator for too long and the expiration date of food.There was a negative significant association between the amount of food waste in households and age, living place, control of refrigerator/storage cabinet before shopping and preparation of shopping list the time of determination of food to be cooked and frequency of preparing meals with fresh foods, while there was a positive significant association between the amount of food waste in households and household average food consumption per week, a number of women living at home, frequency of food shopping, buying food that is not needed when shopping, frequency of noticing that you forgot to use food once you used in refrigerator/storage cabinet and not use them again, frequency of ordering food at home, frequency of food preparation with prepared food products, and frequency of thinking that portion size of dish was large when cooking or serving a meal. Also, it has been found that there is a statistically significant relationship between the amount of food waste with the profession, shopping place and feeling guilty when throwing food away(p<0.05).Based on the study results, to prevent waste generation behaviours of individuals,effective initiatives can be made with awareness campaigns in various areas.